frameworks psychology theoretical in
So 'job freedom' and 'salary' are the independent variables, and 'job satisfaction' is the dependent variable. This is diagrammed as follows:. There are actually two other kinds of variables, which are basically independent variables, but work a little differently.
These are moderator and intervening variables. A moderator variable is one that modifies the relationship between two other variables. For example, suppose that the cases are whole organizations, and you believe that diversity in the organization can help make them more profitable because diversity leads to fresh outlooks on old problems , but only if managers are specially trained in diversity management otherwise all that diversity causes conflicts and miscommunication.
Here, diversity is clearly an independent variable, and profitability is clearly a dependent variable. But what is diversity training? Its main function seems to be adjust the strength of relation between diversity and profitability. For example, suppose you are studying job applications to various departments within a large organization. You believe that in overall, women applicants are more likely to get the job than men applicants, but that this varies by the number of women already in the department the person applied to.
Specifically, departments that already have a lot of women will favor female applicants, while departments with few women will favor male applicants. We can diagram this as follows:. Another way to talk about moderating and independent variables is in terms of interaction.
Interacting variables affect the dependent variable only when both are acting in concert. We could diagram that this way:. An intervening or intermediary variable is one that is affected by the independent variable and in turn affects the dependent variable.
For example, we said that diversity is good for profitability because diversity leads to innovation fresh looks which in turn leads to profitability. Here, innovation is an intervening variable. We diagram it this way:. Note that in the diagram, there is no arrow from diversity directly to profitability. This means that if we control for innovativeness, diversity is unrelated to profitability.
To control for a variable means to hold its values constant. For example, suppose we measure the diversity, innovativeness and profitability of a several thousand companies. If we look at the relationship between diversity and profitability, we might find that the more diverse companies have, on average, higher profitability than the less diverse companies. But suppose we divide the sample into two groups: innovative companies and non-innovative.
Now, within just the innovative group, we again look at the relationship between diversity and profitability. We might find that there is no relationship. Similarly, if we just look at the non-innovative group, we might find no relationship between diversity and profitability there either. That's because the only reason diversity affects profitability is because diversity tends to affect a company's innovativeness, and that in turn affects profitability.
Here's another example. Consider the relationship between education and health. In general, the more a educated a person is, the healthier they are. Do diplomas have magic powers? Do the cells in educated people's bodies know how to fight cancer? I doubt it. It might be because educated people are more likely to eat nutritionally sensible food and this in turn contributes to their health.
But of course, there are many reasons why you might eat nutritionally sensible food, even if you are not educated. So if we were to look at the relationship between education and health among only people who eat nutritionally sensible food, we might find no relationship. That would support the idea that nutrition is an intervening variable. It should be noted, however, if you control for a variable, and the relationship between two variables disappears, that doesn't necessarily mean that the variable you controlled for was an intervening variable.
Here is an example. Look at the relationship between the amount of ice cream sold on a given day, and the number of drownings on those days. This is not hypothetical: this is real. There is a strong correlation: the more you sell, the more people drown.
Atkinson Ethnography: Principles in Practice 2nd ed. Hidi, S. Berndorff Situational interest and learning, in L. Hoffman, A. Krapp, K. Renninger and J. Baumert, eds. Hoffman, L. Renninger, and J. Isaac, J. Sansone J. Jacobs, G. Jarvela, S. Jarvela and S. Volet, eds. Krapp, A. Hidi and K. Renninger Interest, learning and development, in K.
Renninger, S. Hidi and A. Krapp, eds. Renninger, and L. Hoffman Some thoughts about the development of a unifying framework for the study of individual interest, in L. Lave, J. Linder, C. Matusov, E. Falk and L.
Dierking, eds. Meyer, D. Turner Discovering emotion in classroom motivation research, Educational Psychologist , vol. Mortimer, E. Science and Education , vol. Pintrich, P. Marx and R. Boyle Beyond cold conceptual change: The role of motivational beliefs and classroom contextual factors in the process of conceptual change, Review of Educational Research , vol.
Posner, G. Strike, P. Hewson and W. Gertzog Accommodation of a scientific conception: Towards a theory of conceptual change, Science Education , vol. Walker The social construction of interest in a learning community, in D. McInerney and S.
Van Etten, eds. Renninger, K. Sansone and J. Harackiewicz, eds. Renshaw, P. Rogoff, B. Damon, ed. Kuhn and R. Siegler, eds. Mistry, A. Goncu and C. Mosier Guided participation in cultural activity by toddlers and caregivers, Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development , vol. Roth, W. Sainsbury, E. Walker Meaning-making in context: Discourse and conceptual change from a sociocultural perspective.
Schiefele, U. Krapp Topic interest and free recall of expository text, Learning and Individual Differences , vol. Skeggs, B. Tobias, S. Turner, J. Valsiner, J. Cox and C. Lightfoot, eds. Volet, S. Vosniadou, S. Walker, R. Debus Educational psychology: Advances in learning, cognition and motivation, Change: Transformations in Education , vol.
Start studying Theoretical Frameworks of Psychology. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. placed key theoretical frameworks into a classification. CHAPTER Theoretical Frameworks in Exercise Psychology. STUART J. H. BIDDLE, MARTIN S. In this chapter, we focus on theoretical frameworks and perspectives that assist social, educational, and health psychology and tested and applied them in the.
Critical psychology then becomes one more theoretical framework vying with multiple others. This is not necessarily bad if the multiplicity of. IA Cognitive psychology and func- tional psychology can be mutually supportive: Putting the functional-cognitive framework to work. Jan De Houwer Ghent. It is important to note as you study psychology and other scientific topics, A theory is a fact-based framework for describing a phenomenon.
It is important to note as you study psychology and other scientific topics, A theory is a fact-based framework for describing a phenomenon. It normally applies to humans and personality and motivation. A way of understanding the behavior of a person. Whether their behavior is.